JASHER NEWS & VIEWS
Welcome to the Jasher Forum. We are providing this special web page devoted to information concerning The Book of Jasher and various documents that are associated with it, such as the prefaces and other documents that have been included in some editions of the book. Over the past few month and years we have received a number of comments about the book, including some information that was very extensive and very well researched. We believe it would be beneficial to our readers to share these notes, e-mail, news items and treatises with them by posting them for all to read.
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Is it the real Book of Jasher?
We refer of course the the 1840 English text of M. M. Noah
from which several editions have been reprinted since. There are others. This is an
analysis of the reasons to believe that it is the book mentioned in Joshua and Samuel.
by Wayne Simpson
More information concerning the Certificates
In the 1840 translation a number of then prominent
individuals wrote brief "certificates" which they signed, signifying their
endorsement of the book. We now know something about who these men were. Certificates.htm
by Rev. Jim Collins of Ottawa, Canada
The Book of Jasher in Danish
While I was writing about Noas Ark, I heard about the book of Jasher. I read it and was fascinated. Now a friend has helped me translate it into Danish. I would like to print this to make it known to more people. It will only be printed in a small number, and if it pays the profit will go to the Danish Interessgroup of Biblical Archeology (DIBA)...
from Henri Nissen, Denmark
Editors note: If you are interested in this Danish translation please contact: Mr. Henri Nissen email@example.com
Moses in Egyptian chronology
...Appendices C and H [of the Authentic Annals...] just blew me away. Any student of Jasher knows that Moses Ruled Ethiopia but I never considered that Moses might be found in the Egyptian Chronology. I am very well aware that many of the rulers were co-regents with Egypt and Ethiopia was often a seat of power. For some reason, I always considered these two historical elements to be soley in the realm of later dynasties. You have truly opened my eyes. If Moses was Isesi this explains why that figure was held in such high regard in later Egyptian annals...
I guess Joshua/Joseph was king Ptolomeus the IVth. Is Abraham maybe a reference to the Egyptian God Ra? Is Sarah also a reference to the Egyptian God Ra? All this would perfectly fit in the best book ever published on the NT: Crucifixion and Turin Shroud mysteries Solved by Pierre Krijbolder, isbn 9073290015.
JH, the Netherlands
Suspicious of Jasher
... I feel that the Book of Jasher that we have may well be a Mormon text for the following: I note the same absence of cultural metaphor & simile, as well as similar hasty glossing over summations of Bible histories- as are found in the Book of Mormon. (I did try to contact the Royal Asiatic Society through a link to see, to see if they actually had a copy of the book of Jasher, whereupon my computer crashed! I will try again...)
Also, in the intro, (especially in paragraphs 3 & 5) the "translator" (another significant word, Mormon - wise) shows similar themes to Mormonism: Smith had suggested that the Holy Bible is accurate "only insofar as it has been correctly translated," and that his Book of Mormon is the only 100% accurately translated work. There is also the subtle suggestion in the Book of Jasher intro that the Book of Jasher might somehow confirm (the Book of Mormon).
Also, we see a similarity of form in the Book of Jasher's Certificates section - It's just like the "testimonies of the Witnesses" section of the Book of Mormon.
One has to wonder, if some supposed Hebrew scholars point out how the translation of certain parts differs from the Hebrew original, why the translator did not amend those parts. It seems to say a couple of things: 1.this is thrown in as a red herring, as though to authenticate the existence of a Hebrew original through citing fabricated "differences" and 2. this also seem to suggest the being "recieved from an angel named Moroni" thing - the translator's assertion of his work being "100% accurate".
Finally, there is the year of the work... This Book of Jasher could well be a so-called "translation" by Joseph Smith, himself...
Editors note: I suppose I can understand why you as a former Mormon would be senstitve to the issues you raise. I do not wish to become embroiled in any pro-Mormon/ anti-Mormon controversy - that is your business. But I can shed some light on the issues you raise. I can understand your suspicions, considering the dirth of critical information in the edition of Jasher that you have. The copy of Jasher which you have is a reprint of the 1887 printing by J. H. Parry & Co. of Salt Lake City, which was indeed a Mormon publisher. They purchased the copyright from the estate of M. M. Noah. This edition is a very popular printing and is the dominant one in print at this time. It is a very attractive book, but there are several key parts that were omitted by J. H Parry & Co. that were included in the 1840 edition. I cannot speculate as to the motivation of the J. H. Parry publisher for omitting these parts. Prior to the time that Artisan Sales began distributing the J. H Parry reprint, they distributed the earlier printing by the M. M. Noah publisher. This earlier edition did indeed contain the missing sections. Those sections were:
The translation of the Hebrew Preface written by the publisher of a 1550 Hebrew printing of Jasher giving the history of the survival of several Hebrew manuscripts of Jasher from which the publisher, a Italian Jewish publisher produced the first typeset printing of Jasher. It was the first time that that Jasher had been reproduced since the first century - and the first time that it was produced by other than a scribe, one copy at a time.
The English translation of the Printers Preface - by the the 1625 printer explaining how an ancient Hebrew text of Jasher (copied by a scribe named Joseph of Attiyah in 1613) ) came to be in his possession after a diligent search, and how he felt compelled to publish it. The publishing enterprise was called Signori Reformatorio del Studio de Padua"
M. M. Noah's Preface to the 1840 edition, that accompanied his printing.
And Incidentally, the Translators Preface that does appear in your edition was written by the translator, Mr. Moses Samuel, of Liverpool England in about 1839, prior to selling his translation to M. M. Noah.
Together these sections should fill in your understanding of how the Book of Jasher came down to us and it should go a long way toward quieting your suspicions.
So, where does Josephus mention Jasher?
I have searched and searched to find in Josephus works the sentences quoted in Wayne Simpson's article on the Book of Jasher. They are simply not there. I am convinced that you can not substantiate this claim of Josephus having written about and mentioned the Book of Jasher... I suggest to you therefore that until you can mention the precise location in the works of Jasephus of your quote, you insert a remark that tells that it has been wrongly asserted that Josephus has made mention of or reference to this book.
Editor response: You are quite right, sir. When I first published our edition of the book, I mentioned this quote in Appendix A of the book on the strength of it's having been mentioned in Mr. M. M. Noah's preface to the 1840 English edition. I now regret that I did not follow up by verifying this reference at the time. I have since searched for the reference as well, and I must admit that I cannot verify it. I have indeed attached a footnote to this reference in my Appendix A for future printings. The same material appears in my article " Is this the real Book of Jasher? mentioned earlier on this forum. " You will find this clarification printed there. Unfortunately it is too late to add it to all the present printing of the work.
I cannot know how Mr. Noah found such a reference or in what edition of Josephus he found it (there are known to be more than one source for Josephus at the present time). However, there is on going investigation of this issue by Rev. Jim Collins of Ottawa. This research is preliminary, but I will post some of his comments on this subject later in this forum.
Where was Dinhaba (the ancestral home of Angeas, the King of Africa)?
"The text makes it clear by stating. "Dinhaba, which is Africa." By looking at a map, you"ll see that Chittim (Italy) is closest to Africa in the area of Tunisia, which is where you will find ancient Carthage. It is an established fact that the Carthaginians waged constant wars of plunder against the Romans. The most notable of these campaigns were the so-called Punic Wars that later brought a general named Hannibal to prominence. If we are to believe Sephar ha Yasher, there was no Carthage at the time of Angeas but just a few miles west, along the same coastline, is a sight that is a strong contender for the ancient Dinhaba. It is a region that has always been called Annaba."
Excerpted from Wrestling with Angels, by Jim Long, which appeared in the VJRI Researcher. In the article the author draws heavily on historical information from Jasher.
From a LDS perspective...
Editors note: It has been mentioned earlier that the 1887 Parry & Co. edition of Jasher was printed by LDS printers in Salt Lake CIty, even though the book did not originate with them. Mr. John Pratt, an astronomer and a specialist in religious chronology and ancient calendars, has written an informative article from the point of view of the Latter Day Saints. The article was recently published in Meridian, an online LDS magazine. You can read the article on Mr. Pratts personal website at http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2002/jasher.html
Research from Jim Collins:
From Ottawa, Jim Collins has been exploring a possible
reference in Josephus of the Book of Jasher.
Jasher is not a mideval forgery
Jim Collins has been able to obtain a reprint of the 1625 Hebrew edition of the Book of Jasher. It was published by Madame Jacqueline Genot-Bismuth, the chair of Ancient and Midieval Judaism at the Sorbonne. Her very fine work includes a wealth of historical information of that era. Remarkably however, she maintains that the work was made up by a midieval Spanish Jew, a position held by other scholars as well. Jim Collins takes exception with this position and presents his case in the following two analyses:
Website takes issue with Jasher
>[Editors Note]: Frankly, I have been pleasantly surprised that there has been so little negative response to the Book of Jasher. I believe that speaks to the excellent character and quality and usefulness of the text. For the most part readers have embraced it and appreciated it, even if they may have had reservations about some of the events recorded in it.
However there is a little negative press out there. And some concrete questions have begun to circulate that need to be addressed. One of the purposes of this forum is to allow those issues to be discussed. Recently, one of our readers submitted a list of issues about Jasher that he had found posted on the web. I have decided to post these issues on this forum so that all may read them and answer them as they see fit. I know that many of you are capable of fielding these questions and I invite you to do so. As time allows I will be posting responses as well. I think we will all benefit from this exchange.
I will hasten to add that the website from which this material originated is not a hostile one. Although they raise these issues they still promote the book and in fact they sell it. The treatment they gave the book is fair although I do not necessarily agree with the writers assessments.
Here is the list, slightly edited for this venue.
Questionable and problematic teachings from Jasher
Jasher 3:23-- An angel of the Lord calls Enoch from heaven and wished to make him reign over sons of God as he had reigned over sons of men upon Earth.
Jasher 3:38 -- Mentions snow before the flood. This doesn't seem possible because there wasn't any rain yet according to Genesis 2:5-6 and 7:4.
Jasher 22:46, 47 & 54 -- Sounds exactly like Job 1:6-8 with Satan talking to God.
Jasher 8 - Celestial events recorded at the birth of Abram. There is a star from the East seen by wise men and conjurors, which sounds similar to the birth of Christ.
Jasher 43:40-46 - A wolf speaks to Jacob. Biblically the only animal that speaks is Balaams' ass (Numbers 22:28-30.)
Jasher 44:62-68 - This passage is bizarre. God has an 11 month old baby talk and tell of his mother's (Potiphar's wife) advances toward Joseph.
Then there are the wars of Jacob and his sons - Chapters 34, 35, and 37-40. And also the wars of Zepho (of Chittim) and Angeas, King of Africa (which is Dinhabah) chapters 61:23-25, 62:25-27, 63:10-35, and 64. I am putting these into the questionable category (although they could be somewhat possible) because they are not in the Bible and this overview is based on a biblical evaluation of Jasher.
Contradictions between Jasher and The Bible
Jasher 13:5 says that Abram went to the land of Canaan at the age of 50 then back to Haran and back to Canaan at age 75, Genesis 12:4 states that Abram was 75 when he departed Haran.
Jasher 18:9 states that one of the angels tells Abraham that Sarah will have a son, but Gen. 17:16 says that God told Abraham.
Jasher 22:44-45 says the Lord got the idea of presenting Isaac as an offering from Isaac's boast to Ishmael. We know, of course, that God is sovereign and as it says in Gen. 22:1-2 & 12 that the Lord was testing Abraham.
Genesis 28:5 states that Isaac sent Jacob to Padan-aram unto Laban but Jasher 29:11 says that he fled to the house of Eber and hid there for 14 years.
Jasher 47:9 says Isaac dies, according to the chronology of Jasher, Joseph was in Egypt but in Gen. 35:29 Isaac died before Joseph had his dreams.
Simeon could not be bound in Jasher 51:37 but in Genesis. 42:24 Simeon is bound before their eyes.
Jasher 51:26-32 -- The brothers tell Joseph (whom they don't recognize) that they are looking for their brother (him). Genesis 42:6-14.
Jasher 78:12-13 -- Pharaoh proclaims no more straw but same amount of bricks (before Moses goes to Pharaoh.) Exodus 5:1,7-8 says it happened after Moses confronts Pharaoh.
Jasher 80:1 "and at the end of two years the Lord sent Moses to Pharaoh" while Exodus 7:14-15 says, "The Lord said unto Moses get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning.
Jasher 80:2-51 lists these Plagues; 1. Waters into blood (v. 3) / Exodus 7:20 2. Frogs (v. 6) / Exodus 8:6 3. Lice (v. 10) / Exodus 8:17
4. The Lord sent all kinds of beasts into Egypt and destroyed all Egypt ( v.13) / Not in Exodus 5. Fiery serpents, scorpions, mice, weazles, toads (v. 14) / Not in Exodus 6. Flies, hornets, fleas, bugs, gnats (v. 15) / Exodus 8:24 7. All reptiles and winged animals came and grieved the Egyptians (v.16) / Not in Exodus 8. God ordered the Sulanuth from the sea, she had long arms, 10 cubits in length and she went upon the roofs and uncovered the raftering and flooring and stretched forth her arm and removed locks and bolts and opened the houses of Egypt. (v. 19-21) / Not in Exodus 9. Pestilence (v.24) / Exodus 9:3 10. Burning inflammation (v. 27) / Not in Exodus 11. Boils (v. 28) / Exodus 9:10 12. Hail and fire (v. 30-31) / Exodus 9:23 13. Locusts (v. 33) / Exodus 10:13 14. Darkness (v.36) / Exodus 10:22 15. First born killed (v. 43) / Exodus 12:29
Wholly Unbiblical Portions of Jasher
In Jasher 42:30-41, Rachel talks to Joseph from the grave. This is of course necromancy and is an abomination unto the Lord (Deuteronomy 18:11-12).
According to 53:18-22 Benjamin used a "map (or chart) of stars" to find Joseph. Deuteronomy 18:10 forbids this. It is an abomination to be "an observer of times" (astrologer).
Judah threatens Joseph 54:1-68 with annulations but Genesis 44:14-34 is a plea for Benjamin's release.
Chapter 71 of Jasher states that Moses was 18 years old when he left Egypt. (Could this be Rabbinical tradition?) He didn't go to Midian but to Cush and becomes king (72:34-36) and is king over Cush for forty years (73:2), then he goes to Midian where Reuel puts him in prison for 10 years because Reuel thinks Moses is wanted by the Cushites. In the book of Acts (7:23-30) Stephen, inspired by the Holy Spirit, stated the Moses was in Egypt for 40 Years before going to Midian for another 40 years.
Jasher 81:3-4 claims that the Israelites sojourned in Egypt for 210 years whereas the Scripture says in Exodus 12:40-41 it was 430 years.
Jasher 81:40-41 says that all but Pharaoh perished in the Red Sea. Pharaoh thanks the Lord and the Lord sends an angel who casts him upon the land of Ninevah where Pharaoh reigned for a long time. Scripture (Exodus 14:23 & 28) states that all perished.
Jasher 32:1-40 -- Esau comes to harm Jacob but angels of the Lord scare Esau, v.55 Esau fears Jacob. Genesis 33:3 Jacob bows seven times to Esau.
Jasher 43:35 -- Isaac went from Hebron to comfort Jacob, his son, because Joseph is dead (sold). Gen. 35:27-29 Isaac died before Joseph even dreamed his dreams.
Responses to the Issues
Was Moses a King over the Cushites?
One of the issues raised surrounds the episode in Jasher which has Moses fleeing Egypt and joining the forces of the king of Cush. In time the king dies and Moses becomes king for about 40 years. In my new edition of the Book of Jasher, which bears a new title called The Authentic Annals of the Early Hebrews, I have given an analysis of numerous episodes to show their validity. This account of Moses is also included. I am now posting that appendix in the forum in response to this issue:
Moses - A King of Egypt?
Everyone knows the story of how Moses, a Hebrew baby, was rescued by the daughter of Pharaoh and raised in the royal household. But is it possible that Moses ever sat on the throne of Egypt? Curiously, there is strong evidence that he did. The story is recorded in the Book of Jasher.
In chapters 73-77 of Jasher we read the strange story of how Moses came to be crowned the king of Cush. By Cush we are accustomed to recognize that Ethiopia is meant. In actuality it may well mean more than that. The Cushites ranged considerably beyond the bounds of modern day Ethiopia. In the Book of Jubilees (ch. 9-10) we read that the families of Ham were chosen by a legal lottery, conducted by Noah in the presence of an angel, to inherit the land of Africa as a homeland. Cush's portion was to be the easternmost part of Africa, right where Ethiopia is today. However, Canaan rebelled and seized land that belonged rightfully to Shemites, including the modern land of Israel. Though Jubilees does not mention that other Hamite peoples joined Canaan in appropriating the lands of Shem, it is clear that they did. Nimrod seems to have been a prime instigator, establishing his empire in the heart of Assur, in the plain of Shinar, and expanding to engulf the whole of Mesopotamia, and perhaps more. Nimrod, of course, was a Cushite. But the other sons of Cush are listed in Jasher 7.10. Most of those names are associated with areas in Asia, rather than Africa. Sheba (the Sabeans) located on both sides of the Red Sea, migrating into Ethiopia in later times. Havilah located in Assyria. Raama left his name in the island of Regmah in the Persian Gulf. Sabtecha left his name in the River Samidochus in Carmania, in modern Iran. And the name of Cush himself can be found in the Hindu Kush mountains, and the people of Cuthah, whom the king of Assyria later settled from his land into Samaria.
But even those Cushites who occupied their rightful lands did not confine themselves to the area presently known as Ethiopia. They occupied northern areas of the Sudan and even into Egypt itself. Indeed Egypt's 25th Dynasty was Cushite. The Cushites having been, on again, off again a part of Egypt were at that time in a position to annex Egypt.
It is important to realize that there is Egypt, and there is Egypt, and then there is Egypt. Various areas of northeastern Africa were called Egypt at different times. Strangely, there were parallel Egyptian kingdoms from time to time. It was not always a single united land under a single king. This brings us to the discussion of Moses.
Jasher tells us, at some length, the story of Moses' reign over the Cushites. When he fled Egypt for fear of his life, he went to Kikianus, King of Cush, who welcomed him into his army. Kikianus was trying to quell a revolt among the Arameans and the Kedemites, in the area of Anatolia. Those peoples had been under his control at the time. He made the serious mistake of leaving Balaam, the son of Beor, in charge of his city during his military excursion. Balaam engineered a revolt among the people and usurped the kingdom, locking Kikianus out of the city. So Kikianus was forced to lay siege to his own city for nine years. It was at this time that Moses joined the army of Kikianus.
Moses quickly gained an excellent reputation among the troops. Eventually Kikianus became ill and died. The troops then elected Moses to be their king. Moses quickly devised a successful strategy and retook the city, gaining control of the people of Cush once again. Moses reigned over Cush for forty years, before peacefully turning the kingship back over to Menacrus, the son of Kikianus, and then moving on to Midian. This episode was not mentioned in the Bible.
It is when we compare this story to the version in Josephus that we gain some important insight. I have reproduced Josephus' account of this story below from Book II Chapter 10 of Antiquities of the Jews:
1. Moses, therefore, when he was born, and brought up in the foregoing manner, and came to the age of maturity, made his virtue manifest to the Egyptians; and showed that he was born for the bringing them down, and raising the Israelites. And the occasion he laid hold of was this: The Ethiopians, who are next neighbors to the Egyptians, made an inroad into their country, which they seized upon, and carried off the effects of the Egyptians, who, in their rage, fought against them, and revenged the affronts they had received from them; but being overcome in battle, some of them were slain, and the rest ran away in a shameful manner, and by that means saved themselves; whereupon the Ethiopians followed after them in the pursuit, and thinking that it would be a mark of cowardice if they did not subdue all Egypt, they went on to subdue the rest with greater vehemence; and when they had tasted the sweets of the country, they never left off the prosecution of the war: and as the nearest parts had not courage enough at first to fight with them, they proceeded as far as Memphis, and the sea itself, while not one of the cities was able to oppose them. The Egyptians, under this sad oppression, betook themselves to their oracles and prophecies; and when God had given them this counsel, to make use of Moses the Hebrew, and take his assistance, the king commanded his daughter to produce him, that he might be the general of their army. Upon which, when she had made him swear he would do him no harm, she delivered him to the king, and supposed his assistance would be of great advantage to them. She withal reproached the priest, who, when they had before admonished the Egyptians to kill him, was not ashamed now to own their want of his help.
2. So Moses, at the persuasion both of Thermuthis and the king himself, cheerfully undertook business; And the sacred scribes of both nations were glad; those of the Egyptians, that they should at once overcome their enemies by his valour, and that by the same piece of management Moses would be slain; but those of the Hebrews, that they should escape from the Egyptians, because Moses was to be their general. But Moses prevented the enemies, and took and led his army before those enemies were apprized of his attacking them; for he did not march by the river, but by land, where he gave a wonderful demonstration of his sagacity; for when the ground was difficult to be passed over, because of the multitude of serpents, (which it produces in vast numbers, and, indeed is singular in some of those productions, which other countries do not breed, and yet such as are worse than others in power and mischief, and an unusual fierceness of sight, some of which ascend out of the ground unseen, and also fly in the air, and so come upon men at unawares, and do them a mischief,) Moses invented a wonderful stratagem to preserve the army safe, and without hurt; for he made baskets, like unto arks, of sedge, and filled them with ibes, and carried them along with them; which animal is the greatest enemy to serpents imaginable, for they fly from them when they come near them; and as they fly they are caught and devoured by them, as if it were done by the harts; but the ibes are tame creatures, and only enemies to the serpentine kind: but about these ibes I say no more at present, since the Greeks themselves are not unacquainted with this sort of bird. As soon, therefore, as Moses was come to the land which was the breeder of these serpents, he let loose the ibes, and by their means repelled the serpentine kind, and used them for assistants before the army came upon that ground. When he had therefore proceeded thus on his journey, he came upon the Ethiopians before they expected him; and joining battle with them, he beat and deprived them of the hopes they had of success against the Egyptians, and went on in overthrowing their cities, and indeed made a great slaughter of these Ethiopians. Now when the Egyptian army had once tasted of this prosperous success, by the means of Moses, they did not slacken their diligence, insomuch that the Ethiopians were in danger of being reduced to slavery, and all sorts of destruction; and at length, they retired to Saba, which was a royal city of Ethiopia, which Cambyses afterwards named Meroe, after the name of his own sister. The place was to be besieged with very great difficulty, since it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, and the other rivers, Astapus and Astaboras, made it a very difficult thing for such as attempted to pass over them; for the city was situate in a retired place, and was inhabited after the manner of an island, being encompassed with a strong wall, and having the rivers to guard them from their enemies, and having great ramparts between the wall and the rivers, insomuch, that when the waters come with the greatest violence, it can never be drowned; which ramparts make it next to impossible for even such as are gotten over the rivers to take the city. However, while Moses was uneasy at the army's lying idle, (for the enemies durst not come to a battle,) this accident happened:
-Tharbis was the daughter of the king of the Ethiopians: She happened to see Moses as he led the army near the walls and fought with great courage; and admiring the subtility of his undertakings, and believing him to be the author of the Egyptians' success, when they had before despaired of recovering their liberty, and to be the occasion of the great danger the Ethiopians were in, when they had before boasted of their great achievements, she fell deeply in love with him; and upon the prevalency of that passion, sent to him the most faithful of all her servants to discourse with him about their marriage. He thereupon accepted the offer on condition she would procure the delivering up of the city; and gave her the assurance of an oath to take her to his wife; and that when he had once taken possession of the city, he would not break his oath to her. No sooner was the agreement made, But it took effect immediately; and when Moses had cut off the Ethiopians, he gave thanks to God, and consummated his marriage, and led the Egyptians back to their own land."
Now when we compare the two accounts several factors become clear. First of all, it is obvious that it is the same story in spite of broad differences. Moses' foe were Ethiopians. The situation of the city on an island surrounded by water is the same. The strategy of using the ibises (Jasher says storks) to kill the snakes was the same. A marriage for Moses was part of the story. Perhaps careful analysis could resolve some of the differences between the two accounts, but that is not really germane to the issue at hand. The really important factor in Josephus' account is that Moses was fighting on the side of EGYPTIANS, against Ethiopians. This means that the Cushites were originally under an Egyptian King, and therefore they, though rebels, were considered part of Egypt or at least one of the Egyptian kingdoms. Might we find that there is an Egyptian dynasty on record that is associated with this region, in the Old Kingdom period? I believe there is such a dynasty.
[I am sorry that these charts that follow may not
have straight columns. It is almost impossible to make them come out straight under
(taken from Archeological History of the Ancient
Middle East, by Jack Finegan p.220
Manetho Personal name Horus Name Years of reign
2. Sephres Sahure Nebkhau 14
3. Nephercheres Neferirkare Kakai Userkhau 10
4. Siseres Shepseskare Sekhemkhau 7
5. Cheres Neferefre Neferrkhau 7(?)
6. Rathures Neuserre Isetibtowy  1
7. Mencheres Menkauhor Akauhor Menkhau 8
8. Tancheres Djedkare Isesi Djedkahau 39(?)
9. Onnus Unis Wadjtowy 30
Above is a list of the kings of Egypt's Fifth Dynasty. This dynasty ostensibly was ruled from Elephantine according to Manetho. Elephantine is located near the first cataract, far south of most of the rest of Egypt. It is shown on ancient maps as the boundary of the land of Cush. It was the southern frontier of Egypt proper. This dynasty probably controlled the area to the south including Meroe. Since Moses was able to hide there from Pharaoh Melol, it may well have been independent of other Egypt(s) to the north.
If we examine the king list of this Fifth Dynasty, we see some interesting surprises. Notice that the third king is named Neferirkare Kakai. Could this be Kikianus of Jasher? He reigned ten years. Remember that he was nine years laying siege to his own city before he died. Further, it was common for tributary kingdoms to revolt when a new king took the throne, and we first hear about Kikianus when he was putting down a revolt. A 10 year reign is reasonable for Kikianus.
There is reason to believe that the kings of this dynasty were not necessarily successive. The first three kings were triplet sons of the wife of a Fourth Dynasty priest. They may have reigned simultaneously. In any case, the remainder of this list may also be in a rather erratic order. After Neferirkare Kakai, three kings of short reigns are shown. Shepsikare Isi, seven years; Neferefre, seven(?) years; and Neuserre, one or perhaps three years. Could any of these be Balaam and/or his two sons mentioned in Jasher 72.3? The time they had control of the city was about nine years.
Then the next king is shown as Menkauhor Akauhor, known in Manetho as Mencheres. How curious it is that the son of Kikianus was named Menacrus in Jasher 76.7. Notice the similarity. Menacrus was prevented from taking his rightful place on the throne of Cush because of the events of his father's death and the usurpation of the kingdom and, finally, the election of Moses as King. Except for one thing, Moses could very likely have been the father of a new dynasty. Though he took Adoniah, the wife of the former Pharaoh, he refused to have sexual relations her. It was a common custom among Egyptian royalty to pass wives to successive pharaohs, but Moses would have none of it. After forty years of Moses' reign, Adoniah complained before the nobles that Menacrus, who was now certainly of age, should be the rightful king. Adoniah's demand was heeded by the nobles, and they coronated Menacrus, and negotiated an honorable abdication with Moses, who was paid handsomely for his years of service. Notice that Mencheres reign was only eight years, suggesting that he took the throne later in life, as was the case with Menacrus. Can there be any doubt that these two are one and the same?
But if Moses were a king in this Dynasty, would we not find his name there as well. Take a careful look at the next king, Djedkare Isesi. Notice that he reigned 39 years. But didn't Jasher say that he reigned 40 years in 73.2. Of course, 39 is very close to 40, but there is reason to believe that the 40 year figure is rounded off. If you compare 73.2 with 76.12 you will see that Moses began his reign when he was 27 and he stepped down when he was 66. That is 39 years, EXACTLY THE SAME AS IN PROFESSOR FINEGAN'S CHART.
But what about the name? It bears little resemblance to Moses, unless you equate Isesi with Moses. That seems a little too contrived. The answer is that Moses had other names that are recorded in Jasher 58. One of those names was Jared, which bears a similarity to Djedkare.
The pyramid of Djedkare Isesi has not been thoroughly investigated. Two archeologists started an excavation but died before completing their work and they left no account of thier work for others to continue. There are a large number of Papyrus fragments, however, that date from this reign. They all deal with the funerary property and administration of Neferirkare Kakai. This would be exactly what one would expect to see from Isesi (Moses), who took over the kingship when Kakai died.
There is a curious scene associated with the pyramid of Unis, the last king listed in this dynasty (not necessarily the last king to reign). It shows emaciated figures, dying of hunger. Could this be a record of the suffering of the people of Cush during the nine year siege under Kakianus? The timing seems right. Djedkare Isesi is listed out of sequence too, although he could be identical with Shepseskare Isi who is listed after Kakai, if he were in some way promoted during the siege due to favor with the king. The two short term rulers listed next may have been Balaam and one of his sons who seized the kingdom in Kakianus' absense. These things are, of course, speculation, but they seem to fit the scenario of Jasher. Accordingly we would reorder the Fifth Dynasty in the following manner:
Proposed Revision of the Fifth Dynasty Years of Identity
3.Neferirkare Kakai 10 Kikainus Soon after taking the throne, he subdues
Aram & Kedmah. Upon returning, his city
is in posession of Balaam and his sons.
4.Neferefre 7 Balaam? concurrent with Kikainus
5.Neuserre 3 a son of Balaam co-regnal with Balaam concurrent with Kikainus
6.Shepseskare Isi 7 Moses? After joining Kikainus, he finds favor and
is promoted to military ralue under Kikianus
7.Djedkare Isisi 39 Moses As king of Cush
8.Menkauhor Akauhor 8 Menacrus takes the throne after Moses steps down.
There is one further issue to this story. For years Bible commentators have stumbled over the account of Numbers 12 in which Moses was accused because of his Ethiopian wife. They assumed it was Zipporah in question, who was clearly a Midianite, not a Cushite. Jasher, of course, has the answer. Moses did indeed have an Ethiopian wife, in addition to Zipporah, although she had undoubtedly remained in Cush, and was not accompanying Moses.
So we conclude that Moses was indeed a king over one of the Egyptian kingdoms. He probably had no idea that he was being trained by the God of Israel to be leader of his people just a few years in the future. When the proper time came, he had forty years experience at rulership.End of Appendix H
I have presented strong evidence to show that Moses was indeed king of the Cushites for about 40 years. But the issues raised by the compiler of the list of Jasher problems, couches the problem a little differently:
positing that the Bible insists that Moses went directly from Egypt to Midian, and that it happened when Moses was age 40, based on Acts 7:23-30. I would point out that it is reading more into Exodus than is actually stated to say that it can only mean that Moses went directly to Midian from Egypt. By having Moses go first to Cush and finally to Midian does not preclude that he went to Midian. He just went to Cush first. Exodus 2:15 simply states that Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and that he lived in the land of Midian. It does not insist that he went directly to Midian immediately. Jasher's account does not interfere with the account in Exodus at all. Both accounts can still be true. Jasher simply provides more details about Moses' travels than the biblical account. Even the language in Acts 7:23 does not have to mean tha Moses went directly from Egypt to Midian, except for the chronolical indications there.
In regard to the related chronological issue, however, there is indeed a contradiction between Jasher and Acts 7. In fact, I believe this is the only real contradiction in the list. For Jasher 71 states clearly that Moses was 18 years old, whereas Acts 7 says he was full forty years old. There is no reconciling these two accounts.
I would point out, however, that Jasher came out of a Jewish culture, not out of a Christian culture. It is no secret that the Jews do not accept the New Testament as a legitimate part of the Bible. So they could care less that Acts says something different. As a Noachide, I would concur with this. I do not regard the New Testament as having the authority of scripture either.
Now, I realize that this opens a huge can of worms in the minds of those with a traditional Christian mindset. Most Christians are accustomed to viewing tha New Testament as superceding the Hebrew Bible. Therefore, it would be for them a dilemma to accept both accounts here. Most would likely accept the New Testament account as the correct one. I can offer no reconciliation of this problem in this case.
It is not my purpose here to bash the Christian view. But I cannot answer this particular point without articulating the difficulties involved here. In our view there are many contradictions between the New Testament and the so called Old Testament, not only theologically but in the accuracy of relating Old Testament accounts. Jews and Noachides also understand that there has never been any mechanism in place to assure that the New Testament has been carefully preserved. In fact many scholars admit that wide scale corruption of the text of the New Testament has taken place. Even if it were accepted as inspired and endorsed by God, one cannot truly depend on the text to be accurate. We perceive that Christians ignore these problems and try to explain them away. The existence of such problems are in part why Jews and Noachides do not ascribe scriptural authority to the New Testament. To adequately document this would require a book length treatment. That is beyond the scope of this article.
So I freely acknowledge that a clear difference exists in the chronology concerning the age of Moses when he left Egypt. Our readers are, as always, free to believe what they choose.
Who told Abraham that Sarah would have a son?
In the above list of supposed problems with Jasher,
one item is:
Jasher 18:9 states that one of the angels tells Abraham that Sarah will have a son, but Gen. 17:16 says that God told Abraham.
Is there a contradiction here? No. Here is why.
The Hebrew word for angel is Melach. Its meaning is simply a messenger. A messenger bears a message. Numerous places in the Bible, God sends messages by angels. In fact, all angels mentioned in the Bible are sent by God with a message, a command, a prophecy, or an assigned task. They do not come with their own message. So who could argue that a message delivered by an angel and spoken by an angel is not a message from God. Jewish tradition has it that every word ( it also means thing in Hebrew) that is spoken by God creates an angelic messenger to carry it out His command.
One example of this is in Gen 3:23. When Adam and Eve sinned, God sent them from the garden. How did He do this? He placed the Cherubim and the flaming sword at the entrance to the garden to keep them out. The Cherubim carried out Gods command, not only delivering the message, but enforcing it as well. In fact, it appears that the Cherubim were spoken into existence to carry out this task. So Jasher 18:9 does not contradict Gen. 17:16 at all. It is simply another version of what happened.
Can Babies Prophesy?
The writer of the list says:
Jasher 44:62-68 - This passage is bizarre - God has an 11 month old baby talk and tell of his mother's (Potifar's wife) advances toward Joseph.
Why is this a problem? Lots of babies are beginning to talk at 11 months. To be sure, this child was precocious. But even more than that, he was given supernatural knowledge of what he spoke and supernatural help in the speaking as well. Has not God caused prophets of all kinds to speak His words, even including secrets thought to be concealed (for example, Nathan told King David of his secret sin in taking Bathsheba, which David thought he had concealed.)? Sometimes God has chosen the most unlikely prophets to deliver His message. Jeremiah was just a youth when he was chosen. Amos was just a herdsman. God even caused a gentile king, Nebuchadnazzar, to come to the place that he wrote what was to become the entire 4th chapter of the Book of Daniel. And He even went so far as to cause Balaam's ass to speak. Is it not a small thing therefore to put the most delicate secrets into the mouth of an 11 month old baby? This is especially true when God wanted to protect Joseph, whom God had obviously placed in Egypt to fulfill the future destiny of protecting the fledgling nation of Israel while it grew in Egypt. Though this episode is not mentioned in the Torah, it is in no way out of character.
One seems to get the mindset from the compiler of this list that nothing could have happened in the lives of the patriarchs and the early characters of the Bible unless it is mentioned in the Bible. This is certainly naive, for Genesis alone covers about 2300 years of history in 50 short chapters. Is it impossible for records to exist of other episodes and other details in the lives of those people? Of course not. If there were no other information available except what is contained in the Bible, of what value would any parallel reference be (like Josephus, for example)?
About Joseph talking with Rachel at her grave...
The list of supposed problems says:
In Jasher 42:30-41, Rachel talks to Joseph from the grave. This is of course necromancy and is an abomination unto the Lord (Deuteronomy 18:11-12).
According to 53:18-22 Benjamin used a "map (or chart) of stars" to find Joseph. Deuteronomy 18:10 forbids this. It is an abomination to be "an observer of times" (astrologer).
In response to the question raised about the account in Jasher concerning Joseph's appeal for his mother to speak to him from the grave. Was this necromancy, that is, communicating with the dead? If so is this not forbidden? Is this not therefore "wholly unbiblical" as the list says?
There are several possible answers to this issue:
1. Even though necromancy is forbidden in Deuteronomy 18:11-12, this does not preclude the fact that Joseph may have done it anyway. In the Bible, humans - even righteous humans - are shown to be less than perfect at times. Not everything that was done by the so called heroes of the Bible was right. If we conclude that this makes the episode "unbiblical" then the same logic would make the account of Davids adultery with Bathsheba also unbiblical. Yet it is very clearly a part of the Bible.
Look at Solomon. Though he was very wise and righteous; though he was privileged to build the Temple of God; and though his words are part of scripture today; his heart was still turned away into idolatry by his foreign wives and their gods.
Look at Judah. Though he was one of the righteous patriarchs and his legacy of holiness influenced his descendants to remain true to God, even when the ten northern tribes rebelled; though it was his territory that was chosen for the site of God's temple; still it was he who sought to cohabit with a harlot, who turned out to be his own daughter-in-law.
Look at Abraham. His faith in God is responsible for the very existence of the nation of Israel. Yet when one looks closely at the sacrifice he offered in Genesis 15:10-12, often referred to as the sacrifice of the pieces, it can be seen that this is like no other sacrifice described in the Bible. In fact it seem to resemble a divination practiced by heathen nations, in which the future is predicted based on what is found in the disposition of the internal organs of a sacrificial animal that is split apart. Nothing like this is ever prescribed by God after the covenant at Sinai. In fact it is forbidden. This, I believe, is the key to the ultimate answer to this issue. But, I will come back to that later.
I have to admit that I have some reservations about this account as well because it runs counter to my personal views about life after death. But I have studied that subject from many perspectives over the years, and I do not kid myself that I have ultimate clarity on it. So I remain open minded as to whether it would even be possible to speak to someone from the dead. In our skeptical age, most of us look at mediums and their seances as frauds, and that view is probably justified. Though our society is strongly secular, I think that it is still influenced by traditional Christian teaching that shows the practice to be evil and forbidden.
So we can't rule out that Joseph may have actually done this act, even though it is not recorded in the Bible. But perhaps we are interpreting Josephs actions in the wrong way.
2. The account of Joseph's entreaty at his mothers grave is completely lacking evidence of any kind of conjuring, or magical incantation. It is clear that his words were simply an outpouring of his grief over what had happened to him. In his stress, he was crying out is desperation to his dead mother, just looking for any sliver of comfort that he might find. Perhaps it was just her memory. Perhaps he remembered her comforting words. Perhaps he merely imagined what she might say in this circumstance. This gave him the courage to accept his fate. In his distress he may even have imagined that he heard her voice.
It may be that the author of this account used this literary form to dramatize the pathos of Josephs circumstances. Remember, Jasher is not scripture. After all, this is a common literary tactic used by writers today through the ages (Shakespeare, for example). How many times have you seen a scene in a movie in which some one goes to the grave of a dead loved one and literally speaks to him or her to gain comfort? Sometimes, the words of the dead one are also heard, even though it clearly only exists in the imagination. This is frankly the sense that I have of reading this episode in Jasher.
3. Enlarging on the last point, it may be that this account was only intended allegorically by it's author - another common literary device. We even have examples of these in the Bible. In fact, one such passage also has Rachel speaking from the grave. The passage I refer to is Jeremiah 31:15,
... A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping. Rachel weeping for her children; She refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are not.
This passage also quoted in the New Testament in Matthew 2:18 where it is applied to the killing of children by Herod. It is quite similar to the passage in Jasher.
4. But even if we accept that this event actually happened and that Joseph was actually trying to conjure up his mother, does that mean that Joseph was doing something forbidden? To answer this I need to digress into a rather lengthy discussion about the progression of what we might call biblical law.
In the traditional Christian view, right and wrong are usually thought of as being universal - as being the same for all people in all ages. The Bible is viewed as being a monolithic whole. We would apply the same laws, the same morality, and the same teachings to all from Adam to those of our time. But this creates some of the strange enigmas of the scripture, such as those I have already mentioned. It often does not work to try to interject 21st century traditional religious thinking into the situation of early biblical episodes. One bumps into dichotomies such as the sparing of the Harlot who hid the spies at Jericho, and the justification of Abraham lying about Sarah being his sister.
The fact is, that the Bible is not monolithic and it does not apply the same moral and legal standard to all people in all ages. This is a big subject and cannot be adequately discussed in a few short paragraphs. But I will try to give a brief synopsis of how the Bible truly presents this issue.
In the beginning God did not make any lengthy and complicated legal and moral requirements on man. All moral law was based on the requirement to be fruitful and to multiply and fill the earth. There are certain principles that we can derive from that even though no other specific laws are mentioned. One can easily see how murder would be contrary to that principle and how sexual perversion, such as incest and adultery, would violate it as well. Theft of one's possessions (especially in those crucial early times) could deprive him of the means to survive. Though God does not seem to have made any particular requirements regarding worship, it is reasonable that He would have expected man to treat him with respect and not to introduce the worship of some other entity.
But after the flood, the Bible records that God made a covenant with Noah and all his family. He made more specific demands of the people intended to produce peace and order in the earth. Though these principles are not well known in traditional religious thought today, there was a body of universal law introduced at that time that is often referred to an the Noahic Code or the Seven Laws of Noah. I do not wish to make this treatise longer by getting involved with the details of this subject here. I will only comment that those principles are very similar to the ten commandments.
Because man's nature soon led him to be disloyal to God and ultimately forget Him and His commandments, God finally adopted a new plan. This is where the understanding of traditional religious thinkers begins to go awry.
God chose a group of people -Israel- to become His personal property (thus they were to be holy in their conduct) and to represent his Torah to all the world. They were to become a kingdom of priests. Their unique calling was to preserve Torah through the ages so that the knowledge of God would never again be forgotten. Along with their calling, they were given a complex body of law consisting of the Ten Commandments (which was an expansion of the Noahic Code) followed by a further expansion of 613 commandments. This is known as Torah today. The purpose of the Torah was not only to give God's holy nation a constitution based on righteousness and justice, but also to cause Israel to reflect the holiness of God to all the world in every action of their lives.
The important point to realize is that this body of law was intended only for Israel. Gentiles were never required to keep more than the Noahic Commandments and lesser laws that were derived from them. If you doubt that read Psalm 147:19-20
He shows his word to Jacob, his statutes to Israel. He Has not dealt so with any nation...
Israel was required to be holy, whereas the gentiles were required to be righteous. That may seem like a subtle distinction on the surface, but it means that gentiles were never required to keep the sabbath holy, nor to keep kosher food laws, nor to refrain from blending fabrics, etc. etc. Gentiles were only required to live by those basic high moral Noahide principles presented after the flood.
It may seem that I have wandered far off the subject by this lengthy explanation, but in it lies the key to understanding the issue of necromancy and divination and astrology (this same explanation applies to the issue raised about Benjamin using Joseph's map of the stars to find Joseph). The simple fact is, that necromancy and astrology were not forbidden until the Sinai covenant was given to Israel. That prohibition was part of the Torah that was given to Israel at a later time.
So while it is not at all clear that Joseph actually practiced necromancy in this episode, if he did he wasn't violating Torah.
Snow before the flood
Jasher 3:38 -- Mentions snow before the flood. This doesn't seem possible because there wasn't any rain yet according to Genesis 2:5-6 and 7:4.
To respond to this one only needs to consult the science of meteorology. Snow is not formed by freezing rain. When rain is frozen it turns to sleet, or if it freezes after it falls it becomes ice.
Snow is formed when water vapor, fog, or mist condenses on dust particles in the atmosphere. So rain was not required to be present in the time before the flood in order to have snow. But was mist present? Indeed there was. Genesis 2:6, the same passage that was cited as evidence that there was no rain, says:
"But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground."
Comments on the Authenticity of the Book of Jasher...
I thought I would send this to you to confirm the Biblical basis and authenticity of the Book of Jasher (The Book of the Upright/Righteous) in a way that has not been done up until now.
Then The LORD said to Moses, "Write this in a book as a memorial and recite it (place it in the ears of ) to Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven." Exodus 17:14
And Moses wrote all these things in a book, and he enjoined the children of Israel respecting all these matters. Jasher LXXXI:62
This book was written and commanded during and after the attack of the Amalekites. the close connection with these events and the eventual history of the Amalekites is significant and I will try to connect this information.
As you can tell by the statement here, Moses was commanded by God Almighty to write another book. Therefore, this book is significant, and this book should have been included in with the rest of the books of the Bible. Because it was "lost" for a period of time indicates that the information in this book was of specific nature and content to be read and understood in a special way. I believe you told me once that this was written for deeper study and understanding of the Bible.
What I find interesting is that the end of the Book of Jasher ends with the death of Joshua, (Judges 2:10) another way of indicating that this book was written for the "ears of Joshua" and as soon as he died then this book also reached its end... this internal proof indicates that the scribe who finished the writing of this book was following the orders of Moses and recorded the text up through this time period.
Another internal proof is in the passage of Ex. 17 where it talks about the attack of Amalek on the Israelites. Little detail is discussed about this attack yet more detail and info is recorded in Jasher LXXXI ff about this and other attacks. This would lead one to think that the other title to the book could have been called "The Book of the Wars of the LORD" Numbers 21:14 as this book describes many battles and victories that the sons of Jacob had over their enemies, including a battle that occurred one week before Yom Teruah (Rosh HaShanah) which was a "type" of our present day attack on New York City's twin towers on September 11. Is this a pattern that we need to be aware of for future things / events that will be happening???
The commandment to exterminate Amalek is recorded in Deuteronomy 25:17-19 Remember what Amalek did to you along the way, when you came out from Egypt, how he met you along the way, and attacked among you all the stragglers , at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God. Therefore it shall come about when the LORD, your God, has given you rest from all your surrounding enemies, in the land which the LORD, your God, gives you as an inheritance to possess, you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven; you must not forget. (!!!) Some of the commentators of this passage state that the Amalekites were willing to kill themselves so that others would war against the Jewish people. Sounds a lot like the Palestinians of today, doesn't it!
Accordingly Deuteronomy 7:2, the sages taught that it was a Positive commandment to destroy the 7 nations completely. Anyone able to perform this mitzvah and who does not has violated the negative commandment of "do not let any of them survive." Deut 20:16. Mishna Torah, Melachim 5:4: Positive commandment to destroy the memory of Amalek as it says: Erase the memory of Amalek. Deut. 25:19. Melachim 5:5
In Judges 3:12-15 Moab and Ammon and Amalek raised up against Israel and a "messiah" named Ehud delivered them!
In Judges 5:14 There is an interesting statement... "Ephraim who's root is in Amalek."
I Samuel 15:3 Samuel commanded Saul to destroy all that Amalek had, man, woman, child and beasts.. according to Midrash the Amalekites were sorcerers who could transform themselves to resemble animals in order to avoid captivity (Rashi). ArtScroll. We would call these kinds of people in today's language ... "Shapeshifters." One would wonder if the science fiction writer didn't get this info from these ancient sources...
Later in I Samuel 15:15, 32-35 King Saul gave some "latitude" to Agag the king of the Amalekites, and the sages teach that Agag cohabited that night, with the result that his wife became pregnant, thus preserving the seed of Amalek. Aaama Dikra contends that Agag's wife was not an Amalekite, and was therefore not included in the commandment to wipe out that evil nation. This would explain why she was not executed along with her husband... ArtScroll
According to Jasher LXXXI:61ff And the king who shall have pity on Amalek, or upon his memory or upon his seed, behold I will require it of him, and I will cut him off from amongst his people. Is this the basis for why King Saul was "cut off from amongst his people" as king and his legacy as king stopped. ? Since this prophecy was fulfilled as stated in the Book of Jasher... does this mean that it falls in the perview of "sacred text" since it has fulfilled prophecy and was written by Moses himself...!!??
It appears that the offspring of that union ended up being Haman the Agagite as found in the Book of Esther. Because of his evil deeds, Haman was hanged on the 17th of Nisan (Aviv) [the day of Christ's resurrection] Esther 7:10, and his 10 sons were hanged on the 14th of Adar (Purim) Esther 9:14-16. The battle called "Desert Storm (1991)" was a recent fulfillment of the same concepts of the Book of Esther.
The blotting out of the Amalekites occurred in I Chronicles 4:43 when in the days of King Hezekiah, the sons of Simeon and others... "And they destroyed (smote) the remnants of the Amalekites who escaped, and have lived there to this day."
The origin of the Amalekites and the anger of God against them was another interesting find... In I Chronicles 1:29-33; 35-36; 44; This is tied in with Genesis Chapter 25 and Jasher 25 and Genesis 36 and other genealogical records that connect the Book of Job and the "friends" of Job to the Amalekites. Eliphaz the Temanite is the father of Amalek the father of the Amalekites. Then in Job 42:7 "And it came about after the LORD had spoken these words to Job, that the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, "My wrath is kindled against you and against your two friends, because you have not spoken of Me what is right as My servant Job has." Was this the beginning of the wrath of God against the Amalekites because they did not repent and took a disliking to Job (who later converts to Judaism)??? and thus the hatred of the Jews by the Amalekites started with the account of Job?!
This event of Job 42 is followed by a sacrifice offering that is reminiscent of a Succoth offering or a Yom Kippur offering. Does this mean that Job converts to Judaism at this point? Verse 9 says and the LORD accepted Job. This phrase in the Hebrew could better be translated "and the LORD showed has face (A-Z) to Job. In Verse 10 it says that the LORD increased all that Job had "Twofold". But that same word "Twofold" could be translated as Mishna or Oral Law. The verses that follow show that his daughters were named and were given inheritance among their brothers which is a "Jewish" custom. The sons names are not mentioned. This is reminiscent of the account in Numbers 27:1-11 Where the Daughters of Zelophehad also received an inheritance from their father by divine decree. This would almost get one to thinking that he may have married a descendant of Jacob. This indicates that Job learns all of the Oral Law at the time that he sees the face of the LORD. That sounds like a salvation experience to me. !
So the history of the Amalekites goes from the time of the captivity of Israel in Egypt (the account of Job who has an integral part in Egypt) until just before the time of the captivity of Israel going into Babylon (King Hezekiah's reign).
The following are points why I feel that the Book of Jasher should be included in with the text of Scripture and considered 'Sacred Text'.
1). The internal tone of the book of Jasher has a Mosaic ring to it. Moses' hand is on this book.
2). The interweaving nature of the book of Jasher with Torah is indicative of the same writer including and excluding some information from one book to the other as if they are to be interwoven in the same manner as the Challah Bread is that is eaten every Sabbath.
3). The Book is broken down into Parashat readings as is the custom of the Torah.
4). The Fulfillment of Prophecy in the Book
5). The Prophetic types and shadows in the Book
6). The acceptance of the book by Jewish custom from the beginning.
7). The fact that it is quoted by the Apostle Paul and referenced to by many of the NT Writers
8). The development of the Nazarite (vow and effect of one under such a vow)
9). The connection of the patriarchs and the subsequent historical events of their descendants with the rise and spread of the religions of the world. i.e. Catholicism, Judaism, Islam
10). The fact that it is written in Hebrew like the rest of Torah.
Issue: when did Isaac die?
From the list of Jasher problems, we read...
Jasher 43:35 -- Isaac went from Hebron to comfort Jacob, his son, because Joseph is dead (sold). Gen. 35:27-29 Isaac died before
Joseph even dreamed his dreams.
Also related to this is the following:
Genesis 28:5 states that Isaac sent Jacob to Padan-aram unto Laban but Jasher 29:11 says that he fled to the house of Eber and hid there for 14 years.
The Bible is not always in chronological sequence. There are story threads that are carried forward to a conclusion and then the narrative jumps back to pickup another story thread. There are also large gaps of time in the narrative that are easy to overlook if you do not read carefully and if you make the assumptions that consecutive events are always immediate. That is the situation we have here. Rather than wade through pages of chronological quotes I will refer you to the Jewish Timeline Encyclopedia, by Mattis Kantor, published by Jason Aronson, inc. page 18 & 19. We see that Isaac blessed Jacob instead of Esau in the year 2171 when Isaac was 123. But when we read Genesis 35:27-29, we see that Isaac did not die until he reached the age of 180 - that's 57 years later. A lot can happen in 57 years. In this case, in the King James translation we got the impression that Esau threatened to kill Jacob immediately. But it does not make sense that that Esau would think that Isaac was on the verge of death when he lived for another 57 years. In fact, the verse is not translated accurately. In the Artscroll Tanach it reads "May the days of morning for my father draw near, then I will kill my brother Jacob." Further, though this follows immediately in the text of Genesis, it does not say how much time passed before Esau was heard to say this. Jasher 29:21-23 tells that it was after Jacobs 14 year stay with Shem and Eber that he returned to see his father and mother. It was at this time that Esau's anger was kindled and he make the threat to kill him. When Rachel overheard this she told Isaac to go to Laban. Jacob left but even then he did not go directly to Laban. He dwelt for a time with the Children of the East (the Kedemites) before going to Laban.
Jacob surely realized that it would be smart to get out of Esau's reach and thus decided it was time get to Shem and Eber's House of Study. hoping that Esau's anger would cool.
There was actually ample time from the time of Isaac's blessing for the following events which are listed in the Bible or Jasher to take place:
14 years-Jacob spends in the House Of Study of Shem and Eber to get a proper Hebrew religious education. Tradition has it that Esau refused to persue such an education.
7 years - Jacob lives among the Children of the East and/or Haran. During this time he had the dream of the ladder and the Angels.
14 years - Jacob works for Laban in return for his wives Leah and Rachel. They were married right away and Joseph in the 7th year of this period.
3 years - Benjamin in born and Rachel dies.
8 years - Joseph is sold into slavery. and Jacob mourns his apparent death.
This totals only 46 years whereas Isaac lived another 57 years, meaning that Isaac would still have been alive to comfort Jacob for the loss of Joseph.
Response to Eric Paschall
concerning a September 11 pattern in Jasher.
Interesting thesis but I do not see any pattern that fits Sept. 11th:
(1) The lives of the Patriarch (including Jacob) was a template for the later experiences of the nation of Israel. This is a Torah principle. The battle in Jasher would be a prophetical blueprint for something that would happen to national Israel (not the US).
(2) Following the above precept, Jasher 37:4 implies an event that happens when Israel returned to "their land" (remember they legally purchased a large plot near Shechem) and was surrounded by enemies. They would be vastly outnumbered and attacked without provocation. It seems obvious that we are looking at a foreshadowing of the modern clashes between the modern State of Israel and her vast Arab neighbors as witnessed in the 1948 War of Independence, the 1967 Six Day War (it oddly sounds more like this battle) or possibly another battle yet to take place.
(2)You have reversed the concept of the brave few (sons of Jacob) fighting the many evil Canaanite kings. In the tragedy of 9/11 it was a few (evil hijackers) wreaking havoc on the many innocent civilians. If you are going to talk about patterns, then there has to be something in the events that resemble each other...otherwise, it ain't a pattern.
And since you brought it up, I want to address this misconception of Rosh Hashanah. That phrase never appears in the Hebrew of the Torah--anywhere. In Exodus 12:2, God restores the Calendar to Israel (which was forgotten by the Hebrews during their bondage), telling Moses, "this month will be the beginning of months for you it will the beginning ("rishon",in other words, "the head") of the year." This was at the Spring equinox, in the days preceding the Passover Feast which is still celebrated in the Spring of the year.
God commands Israel to appear before the Lord three times a year. There are many references to this commandment and none of these festivals occur on the first day of the first month. Levitcus 23:24 commands that the shofar be blown on the first day of the Seventh Month--how can the Seventh month be the beginning of a year?
In this context, the phrase the "end of the year" often appears in the English. However, the Hebrew rendering is much different. The Torah employs the word "tekufah" which really means the completion of a cycle, implying a return. Since the Seventh month occurs at the Autumn equinox, "tekufah" is actually referring to our planet reaching the far end of its elliptical path and returning back to the sun.
I hope this helps.
Further explanation of a Sept. 11 pattern in Jasher from Eric Paschall
You asked me if I could show you how the Pattern of September 11 was seen in the Book of Jasher and to give you a rundown on the account.... well.... here goes...
In Jasher 37 we have the attack by the kings of Canaanites (about 10 of them) against the 10 sons of Jacob (who had an army of 112 men vs. 20). [Could this battle been one that was recorded as being with the "Spartans" (Sarton) of lore (38:50, 52, 49:1....).]
Then in 39:14 it talks about the 5th day of the battle...
Then in 50:13 the 6th day appeared where they traveled back to their home of Shechem vs. 17 and rested from the war that evening (the beginning of the Sabbath vs. 23 says that the day was the 7th day or the Sabbath day!)
Vs. 28 says that they remained in the field 10 days which means that the Sabbath day as defined in vs. 23 had do be Yom Teruah (or Rosh HaShannah as is commonly referred to today).
Vs. 29 Says that the sons of Jacob assembled and went to Shechem which implies that they celebrated Succoth/Tabernacles Vs. 30 says 40 days later puts you at Kislev 1 or New Moon
51:1 Says: at the revolution of the year the sons of Jacob journeyed from Shechem and came to Hebron this clearly indicates that the time was at Rosh HaShannah (Yom Teruah) as in the previous chapter.
I hope this shows that the battle took place one week before Yom Teruah and was thus a pattern for 9 -11- 01.
Rejoinder from Eric Paschall on the issue of a
September 11 pattern in Jasher
Great response!!! thanks... Regarding the Pattern... I was thinking that the unprovoked attack was the pattern and it was done at a specific time. There are many patterns of festivals all throughout scripture and it is good to see a different yet important pattern in Jasher. Yes... Israel is attacked in their land... were you aware that one of the only Sabbath keeping Jewish owned banks was located in the first floor of the towers? Regarding the term Rosh Ha Shannah... it would appear that the sons of Jacob were referring to this time of the year since it was well before the Exodus command of changing the designation of the beginning of the year. They were using the term in their vernacular at the time of the story... 9-11 occurred one week before Rosh Ha Shannah / Yom Teruah that year. I feel that the 9 - 11 attack was a wake up call spiritually to look at the pattern of the sons of Jacob... Would you agree that they were acting as Nazarites in this battle??? Therefore we need to look into the concept of the Nazarite warrior a little deeper. I think this is a major point that is overlooked in the Bible. Something to think about... :-)
James Trimm - another interesting reference to Jasher
--- In firstname.lastname@example.org, "unjs777" <info@u...> wrote:
I recently came accross a Midrash which may be the key to the truth or falsehood of the Book of Jasher.
The Midrash appears in:
THE TALMUD; SELECTIONS FROM THE CONTENTS OF THAT ANCIENT BOOK, ITS COMMENTARIES, TEACHINGS, POETRY, AND LEGENDS by H. Polano
Not all of the material in this book is actually from the Talmud, some of it appears to come from the Midrashim.
It includes a midrash about Jacob's words to the patriarchs from his deathbed. In this Midrash (Polano does not name the source) Jacob's words to Judah are:
"Thou, my son, art stronger than all thy brethren, and from thy loins will kings arise. Teach thy children how they may protect themselves from enemies and evil-doers"
This is similar but not identical to Jasher 56:8-9 which has:
8 And Jacob said unto Judah, I know my son that thou art a mighty man for thy brethren; reign over them, and thy sons shall reign over their sons forever. 9 Only teach thy sons the bow and all the weapons of war, in order that they may fight the battles of their brother who will rule over his enemies.
Which answers to 2Sam. 1:18 and the teaching of the sons of Judah "the bow".
Only in the Midrash the "bow" is not specified.
Any thoughts on this?
James Trimm --- End forwarded message ---
Submitted 2/28/2009 by BobEvans01@sbcglobal.net
The Book of Jasher Ch. 70 describes an event when Moses was three. I suspect this was the 'weaning celebration' when Moses was turned over to the Daughter of Pharaoh (see Exodus 2:10) Josephus also mentions what appears to be the same event in his Book 2 Chapter 9, pp 68 (The Works of Josephus Translated by William Whiston). The details are different but they appear to be based on the same original story.
I am using this incedent in the second volume of my five volume novel 'Moses of Avaris'. I have also woven some of the ideas I gained from the Book of Jasher in the first volume which is now available at Amazon.com if any of the members of this forum would like to read it. A short snipit about the book is included in my signature if it can be included in my submission.
Bob Evans - Author of MOSES OF AVARIS
Check it out at Amazon.com or at http://evanslilypad.com/MosesofAvaris.html
During the sojourn of Israel in Egypt (1652 1424 BCE) Avaris was the capital and largest city of the province of Goshen. This is the story of the departure of Israel, the last of the Hebrew (Hyksos) nations to leave Egypt, and of their leader, Moses the Prophet of God. This novel is classified fiction, but is based on historical and scriptural truth and may paint a more accurate picture of the Exodus than do traditional accounts.
& Jambres (posted 9/25/09
2Ti 3:8 Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so also these men oppose
the truth-men of depraved minds, who, as far as the faith is concerned, are
2Ti 3:9 But they will not get very far because, as in the case of those men,
their folly will be clear to everyone.
The names Jannes and Jambres do not appear anywhere else in the Bible
In the Book of Jasher we find this:
27 And when they had gone Pharaoh sent for Balaam the magician and to Jannes
and Jambres his sons, and to all the magicians and conjurors and counsellors
which belonged to the king, and they all came and sat before the king.
Paul must have known about the Book of Jasher or could there have been
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